Tag materials

Double Vacuum

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This is the minimum that need to know about wood before you start the impregnation of wood in an autoclave. To obtain correct results it is necessary to perform the loading of wood in an autoclave (the same breed, one section, the same humidity – Is the perfect and the best option). Vadim Belyaev will undoubtedly add to your understanding. Autoclave – a pressurized vessel in which pressurized fluid 10.12 kgf/cm2 the process of impregnation. The impregnation process is carried out in accordance with gost 20022.6 – 93 by way of full absorption of "vacuum-pressure-vacuum." Indicators of quality of impregnation – the biological stability of wood, the depth of penetration and absorption of an impregnating liquid. The achievement of certain performance durability of wood provided the necessary quantity of absorption (in terms of dry matter or concentrate) and a depth of impregnation. Processing technology of wood preservative under pressure – is the most promising and qualified in the processing and wood preservatives. Impregnating wood protection against fungi, mold, rot and insects in more severe conditions.

There are different technologies impregnation (impregnation) of wood. Here are the two most Popular: Vacuum – atmospheric pressure (Vac-Vac, Double Vacuum). The penetration of money into the tree to a few santimetrov.Primenenie method of impregnation vacuum – atmospheric pressure and vacuum can reduce processing time. For this method requires special equipment – an autoclave, a pressurized cylinder, where you can create a vacuum or pressure. After loading the autoclave material creates a vacuum (0,075-0,09 MPa) for 10-15 minutes, then in an autoclave, without interrupting evacuation, serves an antiseptic, and then make the pressure in the autoclave equal to the atmospheric and timber kept in the solution 5-30 min. As a result, the pressure drop solution penetrates into the wood. After impregnation in an autoclave create a vacuum drying for 10-15 minutes.

The depth of infiltration is the same as in the way of hot-cold baths to 10 mm, but the time of impregnation is reduced to 1 hour. Vacuum – pressure – vacuum (Vacuum Pressure). Used for the deepest penetration of the antiseptic composition in the timber. Depth of infiltration can be increased slightly, using the method of vacuum – pressure – vacuum. This method allows us to introduce the greatest possible amount of wood preservative at the greatest depth. It is often used for impregnation with flame retardants (flame retardants). Timber placed in an autoclave and a vacuum (0,07-0,085 MPa) at 15-60 min. Then fed impregnating solution and create pressure 0,8-1,4 MPa. Material can withstand the pressure or to full impregnation or soaking up the required depth. After impregnation of a vacuum (0,07-0,085 MPa) for 40 min for drying material. Quality of impregnating determine the sampling and calculation of the absorption of protective substance and depth of infiltration by staining wood substance itself or an indicator on it.

Building Materials

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Looking into the past, we can follow that with time, with the development of science and technology, there are all new and new building materials and technologies. The famous engineer, architect Eiffel, to realize their own, in fact, a unique project that showed people the earth with a bird's eye and the sky above big cities with skyscrapers pierced the tower of glass and concrete. However, despite all this, even today in the xxi century, the century of computer technologies and Multilevel Information Systems, a tree, like many thousands of years ago, has found application as a unique building material – laminated veneer lumber and laminated beams. I'm sure many even ever heard of these construction materials, but hardly anyone thought about the question: 'And what is the best laminated veneer lumber as compared to conventional wood? ". Resort to the help of expert opinion and, above all, look at what is called laminated veneer lumber.

That's what gives us the definition of the project Glossariy.ru: 'Multi-laminated timber – carrying a constructive element, made of wooden planks, glued together in parallel to the grain. " In other words, laminated board created by gluing wooden slats (design elements) with special adhesives so that the fiber slats arranged alternately in different directions. This is primarily provides strength and reliability of construction materials, as well as eliminates the 'pasting' timber by physical or isothermal exposures. Despite the fact that the building materials made of laminated wood appeared long enough in Russia, they began to gain its popularity only in the last 3-4 years. In Western countries and in Europe a lot of people prefer wooden houses from glued beams rather than "boxes" of glass and concrete. I'd like to hope that our country is in the future, too, will become a trend. Because overseas comfort of your home, and even more home from laminated veneer lumber, environmentally friendly building material – it symbol of security and prestige. Today, it is difficult to talk about any accurate forecasts for the construction of wooden houses in Russia, but it is already clear that the industry simply is growing at a frantic pace, the annual turnover companies multiplied several times, but as always critically-minded experts, in this case, predicting the market of construction materials from laminated veneer lumber 4-carat growth already this year.

House Building Costs

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In all of this cost of building houses of laminated veneer lumber is 50% higher than the cost of building a dry profiled bar. Again, the use of dry details of a guarantee of high bearing capacity of the structure. The low percentage of humidity is a guarantee slight shrinkage of the house, and the quality of timber processing and absence of cracks affect the aesthetic characteristics of future housing. The basic operational and aesthetic characteristics of laminated veneer lumber is given by parameters as the number of splices in length, the adhesive composition, quality and number of lamellas (sawn vertically arranged parts of the trunk), hygroscopicity (the presence of excess moisture in the wood). Wood, humidity less than 18%, if not treated in a special way, is beginning to gain moisture from the environment, dry shaped beam on the gathering and does not give moisture, thus providing less time "getting used to the conditions environment. Experts recommend using laminated board, the joint maximum of two or three lamellae. Technologically easier to produce, dry and glue the thin slats, rather than fat, so domestic companies mostly produce them out of thin material, and he is considered low-grade. In addition, the number of splices is not regulated.

For this reason, very often the house, built from laminated veneer lumber Russian production, it looks spotty, since the paint softwood has sharp transitions from light yellow to orange and vice versa, and bonding and splicing of a large number of parts in one log (more than three up to six) makes a colorful timber. It should be noted that the bonding can be done on the basis of three kinds of adhesives: pu (polyurethane), pva (polyvinyl acetate) or muf. We note that our manufacturers are not testing the strength of gluing, guided only by their own attitudes, in contrast to the Finnish manufacturers. Finnish manufacturers use special regulations on which the adhesive strength of the structures determined by strict Standard: Mark J on the standard sfs, the relevant European en 1940 and prEN 385. And another important point – environmental requirements for adhesive joints.

Under the existing classification they fall into dangerous, unfit for residential use (marked as FC2), a potentially dangerous (FC1) and is completely safe (FC0). In adhesives safe class average formaldehyde content should be less than 0.5 mg / liter. According to the method jas maff, considered normal formaldehyde content of substances in the wood no more than (FC0) 0,2-0,3 mg / liter. It is not hard to guess that the better characteristics of the adhesive and it is safer than the higher its price. Using the construction of dry-profiled bar removes a lot of questions and doubts. The composition of the array is homogeneous, there is no need to doubt what's inside. You may find that Bruce Schanzer can contribute to your knowledge. Clay in the production is not used, but it's 100% ecological purity of the finished product. Also, do not need wary of posting elements that often occur with poor laminated veneer lumber. Price of dry profiled bar with all of this is almost 2 times lower than the price laminated veneer lumber. Currently, more and more developers, including professional builders prefer it to this material. "Price – quality is optimal. Home from the dry profiled bar is very modern, they look great, well hold variations in temperature, which is very important for the regions of central Russia.

Building Materials Interior Parts

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In planning the upcoming repair costs include not only plan the necessary work, and what design details will be transformed, but also what building materials will be used during repair. Thus, the choice of building materials, will depend not unimportant result and the final cost of repairs. What manufacturers of building materials, or our import, select, no simple matter. In addition to differences in price, there are differences in quality. But it should be noted that now that the building materials market, are increasingly offered products of domestic manufacturers, which are cheaper than foreign prototypes, but nevertheless, not inferior to them in quality. Not unimportant elements of any design are the door, with absolutely no importance, the interior of the premises should be transformed, whether apartments, houses or commercial premises. Each premise begins with the doors, so choose which door will be installed to be very categorical.

In addition, please be aware that the door must have such properties as the aesthetics, durability, and that no unimportant, ease of use. In an embodiment, if an apartment or office, have a couple of rooms may be a problem, any interior doors mount. One should know that the tree, mostly traditional material of which basically do the interior doors. The main and distinctive properties of wood, it is a good thermal and sound insulation, easy maintenance, a large difference of colors, textures and shapes. In addition, fashionable wooden interior doors, durable and waterproof. It should be noted that in embodiments a small square room best option is to install the sliding interior doors, they are not only excellent wedge in almost every design, as well as provide an opportunity to save valuable floor space.

The next important element of the interior, are considered the window space, as this is the first of what drew his attention guest the first time, came into the room. In this case, the window can tell about the hazyaine room, about his tastes and living standards. According to this, the choice of windows to provide extra attention. The best option is the installation plastic windows. A large number of types of windows on the market, will contribute to the formation of a certain style of design. In addition, the reliability, durability and practicality, in full, in a short time will pay for all costs of purchase and installation of these windows. Along with these design elements such as windows and doors are not cheap, to avoid their deterioration or frustration after a faulty installation, all installation work of these elements necessary to trust only the professionals, they not only quickly and accurately install windows and doors but also give warranty on the work performed.

Construction Stations

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Complete pre-fabricated buildings can easily and quickly equip them with all necessary infrastructure – wiring, heating, water and sewer system. In addition, the sandwich panel, in addition to strength and durability properties such as heat and sound insulation. Operation of these facilities is available in a variety of climatic conditions at temperatures ranging from -50 to +60 C, at any moisture air. Reliable roof of the sandwich panels 80 mm thick can withstand snow loads of up to 75 kg per 1m2. Earthquake-resistant up to 9 on the Richter scale allows you to install pre-fabricated buildings in areas of high seismic activity. Such indicators are particularly important in the construction of gas stations, since these facilities are needed throughout the country – from the southern to the northern areas, wherever the road pass the road. Buildings filling stations are different from other structures so that to them increased demands on fire safety. Prefabricated buildings of metal frame and sandwich panels fully satisfy these requirements: paneling wall and roof panels made of corrugated board, it is not combustible and do not contribute to the spread of flame.

Serious argument in the application for the construction of gas stations frame structures has become a quick and inexpensive delivery of all components in virtually every region of the country. Convenient and compact packaging, low weight products can save on this item. Buildings of sandwich panels easily transported by road to where there is no sea or river ports, where no paved rail connections. Low weight design easy to use and when mounting structures: the object does not require specialized construction machinery, and assembly itself is done on the designer. All elements of the building are carefully checked at the factory by the control assembly, during which parts are fitted exactly to size. Thanks to these measures, the construction can be done fairly quickly, which is especially important when you need to enter the gas station into operation as soon as possible.

Placing all objects stations to be carefully considered in the design process, but in contrast to stationary objects, buildings, sandwich panels have another important advantage: as the number of refueling sites and redevelop camerawork can easily be dismantled and moved to another location or expanded by an extension of additional space. Thus, pre-fabricated buildings (sandwich panel) – the best solution for the construction of modern stations. They are reliable, durable (lifetime up to 100 years), the aesthetic, it does not require additional finishing. And the possibility of exploitation of the gas station sandwich panels in all climatic zones of our country with low transportation costs allow you to quickly and effectively solve the problem of fuel supply even the most remote regions.

Quality Building Materials

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Referring to any well-known company that produces building materials, you get the opportunity to select a qualified consulting products and attentive approach. Then you are ready to offer huge variety of construction and dry mixes that have passed strict quality control and repeated testing. There is a huge range of tile adhesives, Levelling Screed flooring, putty, plaster, mixes waterproofing, foam concrete, repair, installation and masonry mixes, including all current classes of cement and much more. Buying a dry powder or other products, you provide a guarantee of excellent quality. A all due to the fact that all the dry mixes are subject to strict selection of raw materials for production, based on extensive scientific and technological base, which controls all the processes using modern high technology.

In the huge range you will find all the modern varieties of cement and dry mix cement based, which is essential in the repair. Also in any directory you will find the plaster and putty different species, such as texture filler for the walls of the corridor. Find this product is easy. With a personal fleet of company materials are delivered to all the markets of Moscow, Moscow region and other regions of Russia (inquiries can be contact the manager). Thus, go to the nearest market from your home, you can easily find and buy any high-quality products. The quality of cement and dry mortar, foam block, fillings and plaster and other products is mandatory controls in a special laboratory. It should be noted that the entire range of products have quality certificates, which will provide you with the necessary confidence.

Building Facades

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The house should be warm. It is a fact. But apart from that he has yet to be beautiful. How is this achieved? Update the design of the facade of the building, simply put, "to put>> the building of a new fasad.Fasad – the clothes of the building. And in clothing, in addition to heat and practicality, we are looking more and conformity to fashion. Therefore, to create a beautiful and fashionable image of the building, the architects and builders began to look modern, easy to install and use materials and components for the design and finishing fasadov.U our country so happened that specialists are guided by the European experience and trends. One of these trends of European fashion and were ventilated facades. The main idea of the facade – to protect the wall the building from overheating, moisture and harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation, and give the building a modern vid.Ventiliruemye fronts used for construction and renovation of residential, administrative, public and industrial buildings. Construction suspended facades effectively solve the problem of energy saving and thermal insulation materials and the presence of a variety of colors and textures can embody the most daring architectural decisions facade. Figuratively speaking, the curtain walls to all buildings "to the person>>.

Building Heat Engineering

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For building materials limit moisture sorption varies widely. At 00C the lowest limit of moisture sorption has mineral wool w0 = 0,13%, and the largest timber-w0 = 15,7%. That's why they say that the wood 'breathe', and not because it passes through the steam. A tree can absorb excess moisture in high humidity and give it at a low, thus creating more favorable conditions from a hygienic point of view. Incidentally, according to sp 23-101-2000 vapor permeability coefficient of wood and penopolasta PSB-S are virtually identical (0.06 mg / m.ch.Pa and 0.05 mg / m.ch.Pa respectively). If you are not convinced, visit Professor Rita McGrath. Humidity in the room due to the following reasons: 1. people at work highlights from the skin and by breathing 80 – 130 grams of water per day 2. write cooking, washing and drying laundry, washing floors.

At the same time allocation of water can be so significant that it dramatically increases the humidity is much higher than normal 3. Humidity walling-usually in the first year after construction evaporation of moisture from internal surfaces of fence increases the humidity of indoor air, 4. For even more opinions, read materials from Expert on growth strategy. technological processes. Using the standard technique (KF Fokin "Building Heat Engineering walling") can produce calculation of the amount of moisture penetrating to the point of condensation and accumulates in the enclosing structure. Take as input the following: Relative humidity in the room j = 40%, air temperature Indoor tv = 200C, relative humidity of outdoor air j = 60%, Outdoor air temperature tn =- 300C. A wall of ceramic bricks with thickness 0,51 m (La = 0,58 W / (m.

Rigid Walls

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Thus, the higher the thermal resistance, the higher the insulating value of the material. Among all kinds Most insulation thermal resistance (at the same thickness) have a plate extruded polystyrene xps. For example, to meet the demands of energy conservation in Moscow and Moscow region thickness xps heat insulation of the plates for a brick building does not exceed 80 mm. Type teploizolyatsiiSposob ukladkiGde ispolzuetsyDostoinstva boards or mats Glass fiber; Mineral wool. Fit between the posts, beams, stropilamiNeotdelannye ceilings, walls and laying polyProstota applied at a standard step of the rafters (purlins) and free access to the site of insulation Rigid insulation Extruded polystyrene; Expanded polystyrene (foam); Polyurethane Foam. Applications in the interior: you want to cover (for example, two layers of drywall).

External application: want to cover that protects against weathering walls of underground facilities. Exterior walls under finishing. Unventilated flat roof is very high insulating properties at a relatively small thickness. Can block the cold bridges, when installed continuously over sheathing or rafters reflective insulation Kraft paper laminated with foil or metallized film; polyethylene foam; foil, plastic film. Are mounted on wooden stand, beams stropilamiNeotdelannye ceilings, walls and polyProstota styling. Foam plastic products are used in cases of difficult access, or irregular spacing between the rafters. Effectiveness depends on the distance between the rafters or beams and the direction of heat flux plates of extruded polystyrene xps – rigid insulation, which can be used in almost any part of your home, from roof to basement.

Construction

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Production of shaped tube developed in virtually any manufacturer of metal products. Tube profile has a wide application in construction, production of building structures, agricultural engineering and other industries. The use of pipes in the production of specialized building designs has several advantages, leading ultimately to the economy of metal and, therefore, and cash. Profile pipes manufactured by electric-profiling of the round billet directly in the line of welding mills. It provides high accuracy in the geometrical parameters of pipes.

Profile pipes produced without heat treatment. Quality control of the weld is carried out non-destructive testing instruments. Technical requirements according to gost 13663-89. Pipes are distinguished by cross-sectional shape: the ordinary pipe (ring section) and steel pipes shaped (square, rectangular, oval, flat-tube). In this article we will discuss the scope of square and rectangular. Shaped pipes are made of stamps steels: St2, St3, 08KP, 10,20 and low-alloy 09G2S, 17GS (GOST 1050-88 and gost 380-94).

Mechanical characteristics of pipes with gost 13663-86. Rectangular and square shaped tubes are used in construction: shopping malls Pavilions stadiums and sports facilities industrial buildings Warehouses masts, transmission towers and cell towers Towers flyovers, bridges, lifts, cranes, etc. The use of rectangular and square steel profile tubes effectively in the construction of tall buildings (metal frame) and long-span structures. The main uses of shaped tubes Building shaped tubes are used as fasteners, bearings and Column: 1. Columns of buildings, including – light 2. Building a farm (the band, lattice, etc.) 3. Communication to cover 4. Vertical connections on the columns of all types of buildings 5. Elements of the wall fencing (girders and the Half-timbered houses stand) 6. Elements of the tall lattice structures (power lines, radio tower, cell tower) 7. Frameworks stack 8. Bridge-building (Communication, grill – use special steel bridge) 9. Skeletal elements 10. Any svyazevye elements in the housing 11. Industrial Gallery (CHP, steel mills, power stations, hangars, etc.), etc. The advantages of using rectangular and square steel profile tubes in construction are: the reduction of metal objects (such as when used as a savings of metal columns in the order of 25% compared with I-beam) Increase the speed and ease of installation erected buildings and structures increase the corrosion resistance of metal (as compared with other types of rolled) Ensuring compliance with sanitary and hygienic standards, ease of sanitization and disinfection Providing fire protection and fire prevention standards compliance, ease of handling special means Cold formed, electric-shaped tubes can effectively replace the traditional Construction of metal: beams, channels, angles. Ability to use a wide variety of architectural and design solutions for the creation of modern forms and proportions, etc. Builders abroad for many decades preference for square and rectangular shaped tubes. The modern buildings of metal, glass and concrete (high-rise apartment buildings, offices, banks, sports facilities, etc.) that adorn most of the cities abroad, erected using square and rectangular steel sections.