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How To Make Housing Affordable

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In August this year, Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin said that "the cost per square meter of economy-class housing should not exceed 30,000 rubles – this can and should be achieved without compromising quality and comfort" 1. On first glance, this sounds utopian. Nevertheless, the "fit" a specified price "corridor" will help modern construction technologies, allowing to build multi-storey houses quickly, efficiently and inexpensively. Dying House Considerable contribution to the cost of the "square" make building materials, the cost of which is continuously growing. But this component, as it turns out, can be substantially reduced. In the midst of crisis is one of the construction companies in Boston (U.S.) for construction of houses began to use rubble from the demolition of older residential areas. "Secondary" materials obtained by recycling of concrete panels, blocks, metal fittings and steel beams. So way to achieve considerable savings – first, by reducing the use of new products, and secondly, because of lower costs for disposal of obsolete buildings.

This is true for our country. As is known, Now in Moscow and some other Russian cities implemented the program of demolition "". Only in the capital, there are about 34 million square meters. m of residential space to be in the near future "destruction." Why not to use their "remains" to build new houses? In search of low-cost technologies are not necessarily looking at the experience of western countries. Back in the ussr has developed a lot of promising methods of construction: for example, shlakoschelochnogo based binder (SHSCHV).

What Are Closed Real Estate Funds

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In the closed real estate investor invests in real estate are managed mostly as a limited liability limited partnership (GmbH & Co. KG) designed. As a rule, These are commercial properties, such as office or retail logistics as well as residential properties in Germany and abroad. The investor is thus co-owners, entrepreneurs, therefore, with all the risks but also all the opportunities of the market. The properties are presented in a prospectus, which allows investors, as opposed to the open real estate funds, a transparent investment decision. For achievement of the planned investment of participation, for example, the purchase prices of the homes, the placement period is over, it means no further funds shall be solicited and accepted no other investors. The investment is fully or placed with. When investing in foreign real estate funds on a foreign legal forms can also be used.

Preferably, here are USA, Canada, UK, Netherlands, Austria, France, Czech Republic and Australia. The investor becomes a partner in the limited partnership that is a limited partner, his risk is limited to the deposit paid. The investor, however, has no right to return the shares and payout. This is promoted within the Company by a shareholder resolution. Meanwhile, investors can sell your shares on the secondary market to other investors or underwriters or during the scheduled period again.

But there is no guarantee. The price depends on supply and demand. In closed foreign real estate investor will generally benefited from various tax incentives by the so-called double taxation agreements (DTAs), which allow the German investors a favorable tax investment in the country. Closed-end funds are not regulated by law, however, it is since the first July 2005 by the BFin an examination of the prospectuses required. There are a number of banking firms (providers), in the various sectors (real estate, ships, etc.) are active are. In recent years, in addition to greater regulation of the market, concentration of revenues to fund initiators and financially sound companies with a banking background is observed. Parallel to this development, the law, the conditions and guarantees for such partnerships has always clarified and expanded. Essential part of the fund’s prospectus (prospectus) is. If the minimum requirements for the content and the creation of such a prospectus is not met, is it contrary to the corporate structure of limited liability, the personal liability of the initiators. Roughly, the legal consequence that the founders are liable with their private assets for damage caused. These changes were made necessary after more investors have been harmed by closed real estate funds. Often such structures were used for loss allocation societies. This was the main interest in it, through the personal tax burden of the loss allocation reduce investors. A loss is achieved either by credit or high interest investment depreciation. The yield is therefore mainly in the saving of tax. This, in turn, the system was only relevant for top earners. The legislature has closed this loophole, however, so that the form of investment to be seen primarily as a profit-oriented. Each year, the Germans invested several billion euros in closed real estate funds. This makes it the most popular area of the closed holdings. These figures demonstrate the enormous economic importance of this form of investment and the increasing acceptance, especially from institutions and private investors.

Andrade Infrastructure

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Then to value a part of its property, Mr. Joaquin Coimbra Blacksmith, strategically, yielded an area the city hall located after the place that is today the Coimbra sector, that served, later, for the implantation of the residential set Sponsorship. The related proprietor, knowing that the State would come to use this area for construction of habitations, made a land donation, therefore this situation would make to increase the price of this area for bringing infrastructure for the neighborhoods of its urban property, the respect, Andrade and Netto (2006) in they speak: ' ' It must be, also, clarified that the paid value for the land varies in function of its localization, the urbanization and the available infrastructure in its entorno, beyond the access to the services and good of collective consumption and social and ideological aspects …. ' ' (ANDRADE and GRANDSON, 2006) the State in this process is a great actor, therefore he is one of the agent modellers of the space most operating, mainly the Capitalist State. In this context we can notice its real estate performance as promotional, when constructing the habitacionais sets, in the case analyzed the joint Sponsorship here, through the resources of the FGTS, managed for the Federal government saving bank that has as goal to give better conditions of housing for the population of bands of average income low and.

In years of military dictatorship the governments had created a banking institution, that would come, supposedly, to decide the urban problems of Brazil, notadamente, those related to the question of the habitation. He was then servant, in 1964 the National bank of the Habitation (BNH), regarding this fact Saint says in them: … In the truth, this bank became first place, the bank of the city, the state financial institution destined to prepare the cities better to exert its paper in the phase of the monopolista capital that it was implanting.

House Construction

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ACOHAB, responsible company for the construction of habitacionais sets, starts to aatuar in Our Senhorado Aid from the decade of 80, with the construction of popular houses for apopulao of low income. This disordered growth we dosltimos 20 years in Aid has resulted in occupations in areas of fragilidadeimprprias for the habitation, as the manguezais. The problems habitacionaisapresentados for the city are to a large extent, decurrent of the lack of institucional, administrative, legal and financial umaestrutura capable of worthy fornecercondies to its townspeople. Individuals that had lost the job lutampara to find one ' ' teto' ' thus, the subject to flooding areas are seen as umaoportunidade of survival. Great part of the land divisions and the majority dasinvases manguezal areas of and edge of restingas meet on, seated in indiscriminate ground of fen and/or neossolos flvicos, geologically derivatives of deposits of quagmires and fens.

To each day that passes increases the invasions in the manguezais, resulting ematerros for the construction of barracos. The maiorias of the people who inhabit nosmangues allege that it does not have for where to go and that removes the sustenance of the dapesca family of crab. The IBAMA in turn, would have to protect the fens, maspouco if it can make to restrain the predatory invasions. Thousands of sereshumanos are disputing space with crabs, fish and muriocas. Sergipanos quevivem not only to the edges of the fens, but also to the edge of the consumption, dasociedade and mainly of the citizenship (PERIODICAL OF the CITY, junho/2001). Many viveirosabandonados for company CALNE, had become after the deactivation for aconstruo Da Ponte on the River of the Salt, occupations for the poor population debaixa income. Next areas to the old salt mines had been also invaded porbarracos constructed in taipa, with floor in beaten land, without instalaohidrulica, energy electric, supplying d' water nor sanitation. Soassentamentos in misery state, without the minimum conditions of housing.

Physical Educator

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b) basic Abilities: voluntary activities that allow to the locomotion and manipulation in different situations, characterized for a general goal, serving of base for future acquisition of more complex tasks, as to walk, to run, to jump, to hurl, to kick, etc. c) percipient Abilities: motor activities that involve the perception of the executant, through which visual, auditory, tteis and sinestsicos the stimulatons received are interpreted by the superior cerebral centers that emit a decision as reply, having made possible the adjustment to the environment. d) Physical capacities: essences in the execution of a motor ability are the functional characteristics. When developed they provide to the executant an improvement of the ability level. Amongst these capacities they are the force, flexibility, the resistance and the agility.

e) Ability specifies: more complex voluntary motor activities and with specific objectives, as the cut one in voleibol, the kick in soccer, I hurl it to the basket and the tray in the basketball. f) Not-verbal communication: more complex motor activities, organized thus the quality of the presented movements allows the expression, as in the dance, porting rhythmic gymnastics and even though olmpica gymnastics. (PROENA 1997, p 05). So that the motor abilities are extended are imperative that if it gives to the child property to play them. Putting into motion itself is of great biological, psychological, social value and cultural, a time that, is through the performance of the movements that the people interact with the environment, becoming related with the others, perceiving on itself, its limits, abilities and deciding difficulties. Jonas Alfredo Da Silva Saints CREF: 066032-G/SP Physical Educator

CTN

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To be able of policy To be able of polices is the state activity that limits the exercise of some individual rights in favor of the collective good. The State cannot allow that the particular one harms excessively, in such a way this power of policy places the State with the purpose to assure that the individual right if does not overlap to the interest of the collective. Development the proper legislator express foresaw in article 78 of the CTN the definition of being able of policy. Art.78 CTN is considered to be able of policy the activity of the public administration who, limiting or disciplining right, interest or freedom, regulates practical of act or the abstention in fact, in reason of public interest concernente the security, the hygiene, the order, to the customs disciplines, it of the production and the market, to the exercise of dependent economic activities of concession or authorization of the public power, the public tranquillity or the respect the individual or collective property and rights. It is verified that the power of policy in accordance with this definition of the legal text that has an intention of preservation of the public interest. The proper legislator worried in establishing the limits of this power express placed in the first paragraph of the article 78 its limits Article 78 paragraph only CTN Considers itself to regulate the exercise of the power of policy when played by the competent go in the limits of the applicable law, with observance of legal process e, being about activity that the law has as discretional, without abuse or shunting line of being able. In this direction, he will be able the public power to establish norms, regulations or you would carry aiming at the welfare of the collective Example given for the doctrine is the law that disciplines the use and sales of fogos of artifice As it can verify itself in benefit of the collective interests the State limit the use and sales of these products, in such a way exerting its power of policy.

Professors

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Professor is who says the truth public, takes the veil. Truth is the real fact. Soon, professor is that one that he displays correctly, socializes the knowledge. Already the word profession means specialized activity, entailed to the act to take the veil. Nvoa (1996) brought in that all profession affirms them an identity and this, in turn, ' ' it is not acquired data, it is not a property, it is not a product. The identity is a place of fights and of conflicts, it is a space in construction in ways to be and to be in the profession. Therefore, more it is adjusted to speak in identitrio process, enhancing the same dynamics that characterizes the way as each one is felt and if it says professor' '. One concludes that the identity crisis is the crisis in the way to be of the professor.

Searching on the subject, I discovered interesting premises: TO BE PROFESSOR: either present; either prompt; either cordial; either educated; either cautious and it prepares the lessons with antecedence; either active, either professional. Or still, of a teacher of infantile education, when questioned on what is to be professor/educator. ' ' He is to come to the school, to be glad, likeable, to teach. To possess luggage, penxs, books, pencil. To use eyeglasses, to write in the picture, to guide the recreation, to play, to play ball.

To draw, to teach to write the name, to read histories, speech low not to beat in the children. To have much light around. ' ' In such conception, being professor is to be endowed with moral virtues. The article in study cites the professor-astro, who of the show in classroom, formatted for the neoliberal education. The new chain of the liberal thought treats the education as merchandise, a business. The university nothing more is of what a capitalist company.

Familiar Agriculture

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As Lima and Wilkinson (2002) familiar agriculture shelters an important number of families who not Rattlesnake – PR – 17 the 19 of June of 2008 would have another option of survival are of the agricultural world, to support will not only prevent it the aggravation of social tensions in the field, but also in the city. The familiar agriculturists until the decade of 70 produced foods for the consumption and commercialized only the excesses all, for acquisition of item produced in the property, not aiming at only the subsistence, being the work in the property carried through for the integrant ones of the family. To guarantee the reproduction of the familiar nucleus, they had started to have parallel with the work of the country property, some type of industry caretaker to supply the necessities domestic and/or of the community (NAZZARI et al., 2007) familiar agriculture presents diversified systems of production, guaranteeing better pointers of support. This bigger diversity of cultivos if must the different factors, between them, diverse sources of income, distributed throughout the year and to the search of reduction of risks (DESER/FETRAF-SUL/CUT, 2008). According to Lima and Wilkinson (2002) the familiar costuma to be diversified and pluriativa economy, providing a dynamic greater to the agricultural world. Brazilian familiar agriculture also presents a great diversity in relation to the environment, the situation of the producers, the availability of infrastructure, etc., also inside of one same region. The familiar units are productive, economically viable and assure the ambient preservation better. From there, the economic and not only social importance of this category of producers. Data of the last Farming Census of 1995/1996 had 1995/1996 indicated that in Brazil 4.859.864 country properties exist, which occupy an area of 353,6 million hectares, being that 4.139.369 are familiar properties and occupy an area of 107,8 million hectares. According to Agrarian Ministry of Public Works and the Economy (2.000), Familiar Agriculture represents about 40% of the national agricultural production (NAZARRI, 2007).

Consumption

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In the same context the society appears of the consumption, where the media and the economy dictate on standards of living mainly to the corporeal property and consumerism. New drugs pass to be manufactured (synthetic drugs appear) others are ' ' melhorados' ' commercialized through an ideal of force, atrelados vigor and youth to an immediate pleasure of ' ' curtio' ' of the life leading people to search its effect are for forgetting the difficult conditions the life or for the ilusria search it pleasure. The quarrel on the use of drugs in the adolescence searchs the support in the most diverse authors who made possible the clarification of questions that are part of our daily one and that they are so little explored in familiar scope social. The drug appears in the adolescence many times as a bridge that allows the establishment of social bows, propitiating to the individual the belonging to one determined group of equal, to the time that search new ideals and new bonds, different of its familiar group of origin (Nery Son and Towers, 2002 p.31). Gorgulho (1996 p.163) believes that in a situation of drogadio between adolescents, the family can help recognizing its parcel of participation in what she is occurring. To deposit all responsibility in the adolescent, or as it affirms Scivoletto (2002 p.72) in ' ' harms companhias' ' , it will not only solve the problem, as well as he does not seem very condizente with the reality.

When discovering that the adolescent son is using drugs, some parents tend if to feel culprits, questioning themselves where they erraram in the education of the son, the reason of such fact to be happening with them since they had never left to lack nothing in house. Other parents search the internment of its children waiting a method of immediate cure. As it affirms Scivoletto (2002 p.72) in its studies concerning the psychiatric treatment of using adolescents of drugs and of the paper of the family in this treatment, the familiar nucleus generally is scared and disoriented how much to the boarding of the problem, they complete saying: ' ' beyond feelings of you distress, desperations and impotence in the familiar ones, searchs a culprit for the drama familiar' '.

Health Sciences

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The access the balanced feeding and of quality is basic for the survival and quality of life of any human being, this information is known has times and guaranteed, in the terms of the law, for the federal constitution. However, the logistic one of this guarantee not yet was consolidated, although its treatment in the scientific field and of the governmental politics. For sciences of the health the question involves related aspects the quality of life of the individuals and the feeding, already economic sciences relate the alimentary security with the new neomalthusianas theories, agronmicas sciences assuntam for the involved technology in the field and the theoreticians of the agricultural development deal with a question to production and distribution foods. Already the governmental politics if restrict the mitigatrias measures with programs as Hunger Zero that, saved its objective of income distribution and foods for those Brazilians in situation of extreme misery, it is still one compensatory and without any objective and clearly factual populist politics of social change. The combat the hunger is more than what one assistencialista politics of distruio of foods, since the urgent necessity of a program as Hunger Zero is resulted of one me the distribution of income and not of foods much less of its production, thus understands that the problem of the alimentary unreliability is in the macroeconomic plan of the neoliberal governmental politics, imposed successively, any that is the party in the power, since the question of the not dumb hunger of four in four years. One real public politics of alimentary security involves the access to the food by means of its distribution those in situation of economic and social shortage at a first moment and a program of assistance and support to the small agriculturist, who is in fact who guarantees the production of strategical agricultural products, today and historically, opposing the propaganda of the segment of the agronegcio and of maintenance of the large state.

The food production for agriculture peasant is bigger, most distribuida and diversified, beyond obeying the natural and productive cycles of the land; according to census of the IBGE of 2010, 40% of the Brazilian farming production comes of the small property, that 24% of lands only withhold, without arguing details as the quality of lands peasants and the large state, access on instalments and the acceptation, to the assistance technique and creation of jobs in the field. Thus, if associate to one medium and long term economic policy of assistance makes necessary the establishment of one emergencial politics the small agriculture and the agrarian reform, that the setting of the man in the land, the maintenance of agriculture peasant and the distribution of producing nuclei in all the country would provide deciding the problem of access the land and to the food. The establishment of one public politics of combat in agreement hunger the proposal is also one politics ecologically sustainable, that it refutes the status quo, exculpatory and ecologically predatory based in the great real property, that superexplores the hand of workmanship in the field, it monopolizes the natural resources and the economy of great regions in Brazil. Thus, the constitution of an ecological and socially sustainable State must primar for the increase of the quality of life of its by means of an agriculture that conciliates agricultural strategical food production for agriculture associated peasant the preservation of the natural resources and not for the increase of the productivity in not-ecological molds restricted the rockings of productivity under the ambient and social degradation.