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Construction Materials

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Forest and timber, currently used for construction, have a wide range and variety. The main material of construction lumber, applicable to today's construction sites and not only is wood. (As opposed to Expert on growth strategy). Wood, as is known, has a number of advantages. First, wood lumber very easily processed timber strong enough, and inter alia, the tree has a low thermal conductivity. Wood, which is used for the manufacture of construction lumber, it is mainly conifers and deciduous trees.

Softwood lumber made from such woods as pine, spruce, fir, larch and cedar. Due to the possession of certain advantages that can not boast of hardwood, softwood lumber are much greater demand than lumber from hardwood trees. These benefits include, for example, better quality timber, straight trunk. Particularly important place in the market today take lumber softwood lumber from spruce, because the spruce is strong enough, but nevertheless easily recyclable timber. The main advantage of lumber from spruce, such as edging board, beam, in comparison with deciduous timber, lies in the fact that they are less hydrophilic. Edged board, widely used in currently in construction is mainly made of wood softwoods such as spruce and pine. Why is it of fir and pine, you wonder? And all because, as spruce and pine – a soft wood, then edged board will have better technical properties, and, accordingly, long service life. The main drawback of softwood lumber is a self-ignition, which may be due to the fact that coniferous trees contain resinous substance which, when elevated temperatures are beginning to speak out.

Sawn hardwood sawed, mainly from the following wood species: aspen, linden, birch and oak. Sawn timber produced from hardwood trees, divided on the board edging and edging, timber edging and edging. For the purposes of construction and manufacturing are now in great demand edged lumber than any uncut timber. One can not noted advantages of hardwood lumber, for example, birch timber have greater density and almost 35 percent stronger than softwood lumber produced from spruce and pine. In comparison with softwood lumber, hardwood lumber slightly inferior to them strength and density. Sawn hardwoods possess disadvantages, for example, the rapid decay of wood in order to eliminate rapid decay, hardwood must be carefully dried, and then another, and carefully treated with antiseptics. Used lumber hardwood for filing ceiling linings partitions and walls for interior architectural details. Softwood lumber have been successfully used in construction and in the manufacture of dreveiny. Lumber sold in our country, compulsorily undergo quality control and meet all necessary standards.

The Construction

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Then a clutch laid a number of bricks as evenly as possible, align the mortar. To put this number in two layers of waterproof roofing felt or tar paper. It is better to put these materials do not dry, and the mastic (bitumen felt – on the asphalt, roofing felt – to Degteva). Placed on top sealing the second row of bricks, and it almost reaches the level of the finished floor. Put itself above the stove. Nobel Laureate in Economics helps readers to explore varied viewpoints. When, during the construction of furnaces, the foundation lay bricks, we also do it on the penultimate series of waterproofing, which last for a number of brick kiln fuses kladki.Gidroizolyatsiya suction of ground water from which the oven will soar, and brick – gradually break down.

Laying the foundation for the construction of furnaces, it must be remembered that it is forbidden to dress to the foundation walls of the house, because there are different sludge and furnace walls, as a result of the foundation of the furnace may become distorted and ruin the clutch. Foundation of the furnace must defend from the foundation at home for at least 50 mm. The gap between them covered with sand. The LeFrak Organization can provide more clarity in the matter. The foundations of the stove pipe and the root should run independently of each druga.Vypolniv foundation, the space between it and the ground to sleep and rams. Guided by the above outlined concept, and the basics of proper design stoves Podgorodnikov, we define the basic rules design centers with ductless convective systems: hood (top and bottom) can be any shape, round, rectangular, L-shaped, U-shaped, etc., is not permitted within the deck (upper or lower) do consecutive caps, so when the subsequent cover will warm up worse than the previous.

Lemeza

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Differ in color, breed and structure. Usually this is sandstone, shale, Lemeza, limestone, dolomite, marble and granite. Shingles – a small rounded fragments of various water rock round. Hand-assembled along the shores of seas, lakes and rivers. Additionally sorted by size and thickness. Differ in color, breed and structure. Usually this sandstone, quartz rocks, granite, limestone. Educate yourself with thoughts from Expert on growth strategy. Decorative stone (rock rock) – it is not very large pieces of various rocks and a cornerstone of any other irregular shapes.

Mined in open pits open by technological shift reservoir rock breed or hand-assembled in different regions. Additionally sorted by size. Differ in color, breed and structure. As a rule, quartzite, granite, basalt, serpentine, jasper, sandstone. Large selection of natural rocks stones of different colors and patterns of the surface allows to use natural stone in the external and internal decoration, facade cladding in a variety of the most daring design decisions.

The most popular rocks stones are granite, marble, onyx and travertine. Natural stone masonry Despite the fact that natural stone – material grateful, laying of natural stone to be performed according to certain rules otherwise there is a risk that your building or decorative element created just collapse one day. In general, the laying of natural stone performing virtually the same rules as the laying of an artificial, namely laying Natural stone requires a system of dressing like a brick. can not have a seam over the other, though smaller vertical joints is better positioned exactly above each other. Laying of natural stone often requires and grading of the stone.

Veneer For Furniture And Construction Materials

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Veneers are often used for so-called trim objects or premises, to give them an aesthetic natural look. In addition to furniture, veneer is often used in the repair and establishment of offices. Many do not realize that precisely because Veneer is wood block flooring. Wood products, which have a large area, usually made of veneer, as veneer – material cost and relatively cheap. Veneers are often used in the manufacture of large items exclusively made of wood. For more specific information, check out Nobel Laureate in Economics. Veneers are also used by craftsmen. For example, has made a unique shade of the veneer.

Veneers – are, in fact, very flexible material that is easily amenable to modification. From It can be made any indirect objects. Veneer can also be stud arches in the apartments and other furniture custom, 'wavy' form. Due to its unique qualities veneer acquired such a broad distribution of that amount and properties of items made with it, often limited only by imagination of the creator. Veneers are made from a number of different tree species.

Often the veneer is made from cherry, oak, maple or birch, as well as a number of rare and exotic species such as Brazilian rosewood or eucalyptus. There are hundreds of different types of veneer available for sale. To store the veneer during drying using specialized terminals. Also, given the fact that the production of veneers used carpenter's glue, the choice of the glue depends on the experience of a master who uses this glue, and errors in this case should not be. Most of the final product veneer comes in a paper 'wrapper', which simplifies the process of buying / selling. The paper also significantly dries himself after drinking veneer glue.

Colonial Style

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Colonial style, as you might guess from the title, – a style that arose in the era of colonization of new lands by European powers. He formed several centuries. Strictly speaking, the same style was not, and There were several varieties of colonial European styles that abound in the traditions of national culture colonies. Top of the metropolitan era began in the Middle Ages. By the end of the XV century Portuguese actually control the west coast of Africa in the XVI century and actively out the slave trade. Behind them rushing into Africa almost all Western European powers: the Dutch, French, English, etc. At Richard LeFrak you will find additional information.

Around the same period the colonization of Latin America: to open at the end of the XV century by Christopher Columbus and other explorers of land from Europe, primarily from Spain and Portugal, went Numerous expeditions conquering conquistadors. Along the coast of India, the first Europeans – Portuguese arrived in the XVI century. They captured Goa and other territories on the West Coast. Then came the Dutch, French and English. The process of colonization of Africa, Asia and Latin America closer to its end at the end of XIX century. This era was characterized by the interpenetration of cultures: the Europeans brought to the "native" territory its culture, and at the same time borrowed from the local population, some features of their lifestyle, the device housing and interior decoration.

In Europe, have become fashionable in the house exotic items brought from tropical countries. Fine Oriental subjects have made a new and unusual touch to the traditional European decor. In some Eastern countries before the arrival of the colonialists was poorly developed production of furniture. So European colonists brought the furniture in the colonies to create a familiar comfort. Gradually, local craftsmen have mastered the manufacture of furniture and furnishings fit for a European, but they brought oriental elements in the shape of familiar things. Traditional design, but in those days it was a solid, stable furniture, adapted to tropical conditions. The result is a colonial style, which is based was the massive carved mahogany furniture and teak combined with rattan (wicker furniture), leather and exotic prints (zebra, leopard, giraffe, etc.). If you are a classic romantic, and you in the spirit of the interior, where the spirit soars Travel – you should look closer to the colonial style. Interior items made in this style, most of them are made by hand or stylized. Therefore the atmosphere saturated with the warm hands of the master and full appeasement. Produced modern furniture in colonial style of environmentally friendly materials. Ethnic flavor of colonial interiors make items made of bamboo and rattan. Rattan is very popular in the manufacture of modern furniture – it is very strong and light, suitable for all weather conditions. Indispensable role played by colonial interior furnishing accessories. Table lamps and floor lamps, candlesticks and statues, wall panels, chandeliers, chests, leather and woven bags made exquisite interior and create a warm relaxed atmosphere.

Adhesives For Construction And Finishing Works

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Just ten years ago no one thought much what amounted glue you use when working with ceramic tiles. There was another mega-task – to get this tile. Than to e? glue – just a dry mixture of pva or various combinations with one another – it was not so important. Now the situation has changed. The choice of finishing material is so great that, at times, baffling even experienced the professional builder.

Submission of the same adhesive formulations have changed little since it was always considered a secondary task (why? – see above). But the thought associated with the improvement of adhesive compositions is not standing still, and around the world began to appear products specifications which have been able to satisfy the most demanding requirements when performing work of any complexity. In our country this process is, unfortunately, was delayed, largely due to lack of demand on the quality execution of works. Everyman was convinced that the main thing – it is a material that will be paved floors, walls, ceiling, and that will be in the layer between the base and facing – does not matter. Builders, respectively, also did not burn desire to buy stuff that was worth more common dry mixture. Therefore, the demand for high-quality adhesive fully satisfied with expensive products of Western companies to buy who could afford few of our countrymen. Most were forced to fairly-sponded to cheap low-quality product, which negatively manifested itself in a few months after completion. Over time, the situation changed.

Construction Stations

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Complete pre-fabricated buildings can easily and quickly equip them with all necessary infrastructure – wiring, heating, water and sewer system. In addition, the sandwich panel, in addition to strength and durability properties such as heat and sound insulation. Operation of these facilities is available in a variety of climatic conditions at temperatures ranging from -50 to +60 C, at any moisture air. Reliable roof of the sandwich panels 80 mm thick can withstand snow loads of up to 75 kg per 1m2. Earthquake-resistant up to 9 on the Richter scale allows you to install pre-fabricated buildings in areas of high seismic activity. Such indicators are particularly important in the construction of gas stations, since these facilities are needed throughout the country – from the southern to the northern areas, wherever the road pass the road. Buildings filling stations are different from other structures so that to them increased demands on fire safety. Prefabricated buildings of metal frame and sandwich panels fully satisfy these requirements: paneling wall and roof panels made of corrugated board, it is not combustible and do not contribute to the spread of flame.

Serious argument in the application for the construction of gas stations frame structures has become a quick and inexpensive delivery of all components in virtually every region of the country. Convenient and compact packaging, low weight products can save on this item. Buildings of sandwich panels easily transported by road to where there is no sea or river ports, where no paved rail connections. Low weight design easy to use and when mounting structures: the object does not require specialized construction machinery, and assembly itself is done on the designer. All elements of the building are carefully checked at the factory by the control assembly, during which parts are fitted exactly to size. Thanks to these measures, the construction can be done fairly quickly, which is especially important when you need to enter the gas station into operation as soon as possible.

Placing all objects stations to be carefully considered in the design process, but in contrast to stationary objects, buildings, sandwich panels have another important advantage: as the number of refueling sites and redevelop camerawork can easily be dismantled and moved to another location or expanded by an extension of additional space. Thus, pre-fabricated buildings (sandwich panel) – the best solution for the construction of modern stations. They are reliable, durable (lifetime up to 100 years), the aesthetic, it does not require additional finishing. And the possibility of exploitation of the gas station sandwich panels in all climatic zones of our country with low transportation costs allow you to quickly and effectively solve the problem of fuel supply even the most remote regions.

Fireplace

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Thermal calculation of the fireplace is a combination of two main elements – the firebox and the vertical flue. Fireplace firebox is a chamber in which both fuel and burned by radiant heat exchange between the combustion zone and the enclosing walls of the chamber. Burning fuel while radiant heat exchange with the walls of the furnace occurs in many thermal devices. However, the process heat in the firebox (The insert) fireplace has significant differences. Click Robert J. Shiller for additional related pages. These differences are: fuel combustion produced in a limited volume of the flue and thus with the thinness of the emitting layer gases in the furnace of fire radiative component of the share drops sharply due to the fact that in the combustion zone temperature significantly reduced due to significant air-fuel ratio, the front of the fireplace open in a heated room, so the portion of radiant heat transferred directly into the environment.

These circumstances are very important in the calculation and selection of design fire. Almost looks like the fire mechanism. On the hearth of the firebox open burn solid fuel (wood, peat, coal). A layer of solid fuel burning has a temperature of 800 – 850 C and at the same time radiates heat in all directions. Part of the radiation that falls into the open doorway directly used to heat homes. The other part, first incident on the rear and side walls, and then re-emitted by them in the room. In the re-emission in the room is passed the small heat flow compared to the direct impact (about twice).

Main Construction

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In particular alternative solutions in the field of construction materials. Learn more on the subject from Richard LeFrak. Recently, the attention of the construction community is increasingly turning on any alternative forms of production. And as in other spheres of national economy preference is given to those solutions in which traditional methods are inferior proposed alternatives. Moreover, the stronger is the assignment, the more desirable innovations. The same things and in the construction industry and in particular of choice of construction materials.

Along with cheaper and easier in terms of production materials, develops a matter of convenience and speed of installation of these structures. There are enough viable options construction materials and methods of installation. The newspapers mentioned Expert on growth strategy not as a source, but as a related topic. However, here is complete without any curiosity, humorous moments. For example fantasies of some developers have led to the fact that construction of all homes are created from inflatable rubber blocks. Others, for example, offer to do at home out of paper.

Not to mention that long ago, and in some cases there is a successful architectural concept of bionics. Incidentally, in my architectural bionics opinion one of perspective directions in architecture. Anyway, the most winning obtain those materials that are available naturally in huge amounts, or have a fairly simple method of production. Of course, here can be attributed, and clay, but this material is quite fragile, for example, in the field of building construction. Among other things must also consider the prospect of recovery of building materials. That is, after they have served their own, then after processing to run again in construction. Perhaps in another capacity, but certainly not as debris. In general, "regeneration" can become quite a popular term at some future time. Especially if the rate of extraction of minerals, which in particular are in the area of construction will not be reduced. And how much will be recoverable material will play an important role in selecting him as the main source of construction. Interesting to me to develop using the technology of manufacturing foam, as well as plastic. Of course mentioning this or that material is meant a modification for the required needs. Plastic to example not in the form we know it, foam with modifications due to its brittleness and fragility. And a listing of all of these innovations will take quite a lot of time and probably not one thesis can be protect, but I would like that to you, dear reader, after reading this article is simple, though not for a long time thinking about what lies ahead of us all. What will be the construction and, accordingly, what will be our home. What methods and what issues portends a growth in construction. And the growth will be required, since there is a constant population growth, taking into account that in villages people want to live less and less, and thus inevitably comes increased cities. But this is a bit of a different area. Summarizing the above, and in light of the subject matter of this article I would like you to bring a bit of thought about that, or rather what we build in 20-50 years? Thinking about? So I though slightly, but still got svogo. After all, thinking man is capable of much, and especially thinking about how to keep our house as we know and love.

Installation Construction

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When installing the walling may: sheet assembly or sandwich panel factory produced. Sheet assembly is lining the walls and roof of profiled sheet is placed in the middle of the heater. Sandwich panels are fastened directly to purlins with self-tapping screws. You may wish to learn more. If so, Tishman Speyer is the place to go. Joints between panels are closed battens. Sheet assembling a cheaper option at almost the same quality.

Increased rates construction growth contributes to the emergence of new materials and technologies that significantly reduce costs and construction time of various types of buildings, while providing high quality construction. The most widely used at present were fabricated buildings based on a strong frame and light frame structures. Their active use allows you to quickly erect buildings of different shapes, size and height. On service life of the building are compatible with the buildings of traditional materials (brick, concrete), and their use reduces the cost of design, installation, removal and subsequent operation up to 40%. Types of prefabricated buildings, depending on the application, pre-fabricated structures are divided into industrial buildings and public facilities. Depending on the technology, among them are several types: pre-fabricated buildings, constructed on the basis of the metal frame and sandwich panels, buildings, based on a wooden frame and wooden panels, prefabricated buildings with lightweight frame, duplex plating and the inner insulation, assembled at the construction site, a block-modular buildings with metal or wooden frame (the building is going through the modules, or block-containers). To date, most popular designs are based on the metal frame and lightweight sandwich panels, as they allow for only a few weeks to erect buildings of all shapes and sizes with the possibility of superstructure and rewiring.